Category Archives: Medication

ADHD Medications: Part Two – Overview of Medications

A PHYSICIAN’S PERSPECTIVE on ADHD Medications by Theodore Mandelkorn, MD – 2011

Overview of specific ADHD Medications – Get the factsPART ONE: Therapeutic Treatment of ADHD 

PART TWO: OVERVIEW OF MEDICATIONS

It is important to note that medical treatment should always be given for the entire waking day, seven days a week.  There are few medical conditions that we do not elect to treat in the evenings, on weekends or holidays.  No one chooses to turn down their brain chemistry during his or her wakeful hours.  Therefore, all medical treatment for ADHD should last for at least 12-16 hours daily.  With this in mind, I have highlighted (***) the medications that should be preferred treatments for ADHD.

 

NON-STIMULANT MEDICATIONS

  • ATOMOXETINE, 24 HOURS (Strattera)
  • CLONIDINE, TABLETS: 4-5HOURS, PATCH: 5-6 DAYS  (Catapres)
  • GUANFACINE LONG ACTING (Intuniv)

STIMULANT MEDICATIONS:  OVERVIEW,  SAFETY PROFILE,  SIDE EFFECTS

  • METHYLPHENIDATE TABLETS, 2-4 HOURS (Ritalin)
  • DEXTRO-METHYLPHENIDATE, 4-6 HOURS (Focalin)
  • METHYLPHENIDATE SUSTAINED RELEASE, 6 HOURS (Ritalin SR20)
  • METHYLPHENIDATE LONG ACTING, 8 HOURS (Ritalin LA)
  • METHYLPHENIDATE CONTROLLED DISPENSE, 8 HOURS (Metadate CD)
  • METHYLPHENIDATE EXTENDED RELEASE, 12 HOURS (Concerta)
  • METHYLPHENIDATE TRANSDERMAL SYSTEM,  12 HOURS (Daytrana)
  • DEXTROAMPHETAMINE TABLETS, 4 HOURS (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
  • DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SPANSULES 6 HOURS (Dexedrine)
  • AMPHETAMINE SALTS TABLETS, 6 HOURS (Adderall tablets)
  • AMPHETAMINE SALTS EXTENDED RELEASE, 12 HOURS (Adderall Xr and generic)
  • LISDEXAMFETAMINE, 12-14 HOURS (VYVANSE)

Editor’s note:  “You can’t notice small improvements or side effects without a monitoring sheet.”  See ADDitude Magazine’s 10 Medication Fallacies even Doctors Believe  See below for a few Response to Treatment Rating Scales.

 

NON-STIMULANT MEDICATIONS

Guanfacine, Extended Release   (Intuniv)

This new formulation of an existing medication, guanfacine, was released by the FDA to the market in Dec.  It is an alpha 2 agonist, which will have a 24-hour effect on ADHD symptoms and may be beneficial for individuals with ADHD, particularly those with significant mood, anger, oppositional symptoms.  Preliminary results show that it is clearly beneficial for some patients without the adverse side effects often seen with other ADD medications.

 

Form:                 Pills:  1mg, 2mg, 3mg, 4mg.  Pills must be swallowed.  They must not be crushed, chewed or broken or they will loose the 24-hour effect.

Dosage:        It has a very slow rate of onset and will take 3-4 weeks to assess                        effectiveness.  The primary side effect is tiredness, lethargy, and it must be started slowly.  Suggest starting dose of 1 mg for one week, and raise by 1 mg each week to reach good therapeutic effect.  The effects do last 24 hours.

SideEffects : Lethargy, tiredness, dry mouth, constipation, dizziness,             decreased blood pressure.

Pros:                  A non-stimulant medication that appears to have a good, positive effect on ADD and oppositional symptoms that lasts 24hours with reduced side effect profile, compared to the traditional  treatments.

Cons:                A new formulation with minimal time on the market to truly assess effectiveness.

ATOMOXETINE  24 hours   (Strattera)

This is a medication for ADHD, which was released by the FDA in December 2002.  It is a non-stimulant medication, which is not abusable and can be written without Schedule II restrictions.  This is the first medication that lasts 24 hours and therefore gives full therapeutic effect throughout the day and night .Unfortunately, over the past few years, it has not performed as well as expected.  It tends to often have side effect and does not deliver as robust a response as the stimulants.

Form:                 Capsules: 10mg, 18mg, 25mg, 40mg, 60mg.

Dosage:            Weight based dose:  first four days=0.5mg/kg;  target dose (day five and after)=1.2mg/kg.  This medication must be taken with food to prevent nausea.

Action:               Very slow acting and will take 3-4 weeks (or more) to reach a therapeutic effect.  If the patient is already taking stimulant medications, suggest continuing them and adding the Strattera for the first 4-6 weeks, then tapering the stimulant slowly until discontinued.

Possible Side Effects:    No long-term safety information is available for this medication. Primary side effects in children include sleepiness during the day, appetite changes, and mood or personality changes. If these occur, give the dose at night or lower the dose until they improve.  Then raise dose if possible.  Adults can experience more noted effects:  transitory dry mouth and dizziness, insomnia, sleepiness and significant moodiness. Other effects in adults include possible bladder spasm, sexual dysfunction (uncommon but often result in discontinuation of medication).  Occasionally a child or adult will get very agitated.  If this occurs, discontinue the medication.

Pros:                  24-hour coverage.  Less effect on appetite than stimulants.

Cons:                Many complaints about side effects, lack of efficacy compared to stimulants.  Has not been a very satisfactory treatment for many with ADD

CLONIDINE  tablets 4-5 hours, patches 5-6 days   (Catapres)

Form:                 Patches applied to back or shoulder.  Catapres TTS-1, TTS-2, TTS-3.  Tablets .  Clonidine tablets 0.1mg, 0.2mg, and 0.3mg.

Dosage:            Very individual, usually .1-.3mg.

Action:               Works quickly.  Tablets work within 1 hour, patches within 1 day.

Effects:              Often will improve ADHD symptoms, particularly aggressive and hyperactive behaviors.  Not too helpful for focus and attention.  Decreases motor and vocal tics.  Can have a dramatic effect on oppositional defiant behavior and anger management.  Often used as one dose at night about 1½ hours before bedtime to assist with getting to sleep.

Possible Side Effects:    Major side effect is tiredness, particularly if the dose is raised too quickly.  This disappears with time.  Dizziness, dry mouth.  Some will notice increased activity, irritability.

Pros:                  Excellent delivery system if patch is used.  No pills required

Cons:                Does not usually work as well as stimulants.  Patch can cause skin irritation in many individuals and may not be tolerated.  Can affect cardiac conduction (heart rate and rhythm) in high doses and must not be left around for animals or small children to accidentally ingest.

 

STIMULANT MEDICATIONS

Some general comments can be made about stimulant medications as a class of medications.  The longer acting medications have clear advantages over the short acting medications, not only in duration of therapeutic effect throughout the day, but also in smoothness of the therapeutic effect.  It is very difficult for an individual with ADHD to remember to take multiple doses of medication during the day.  Multiple dosing increases the risk of missing doses, which results in the return of symptoms at inopportune times.  The afternoon dosing is frequently missed, causing significant difficulties.  Furthermore, each additional dose serves as an unnecessary reminder that treatment for this condition is needed and “something is wrong.”

The reason for medical treatment is to “normalize” the dayMy general rule is to always use 12-16 hour medications unless they are not effective or have intolerable side effects.  In such a case, the six or eight hour medications should be tried, because some individuals tolerate them better and find them more effective.  However, if the six or eight hour medication is used, a second dose should be given to allow patients to have the therapeutic benefit for the full day.

 

SAFETY PROFILE

The stimulant medications are one of the most studied treatments in the history of medicine.  The medications have been used extensively in children and adults over the past 50 years with no evidence to date of long-term concerning side effects.  At this time there is no conclusive evidence that use of stimulants causes any long term lasting effects on growth, although there may be some delay in height and weight gain in some individuals.

The short acting stimulants are extremely abusable and are valued highly on the street.  It is best to always use the long-acting preparations, which are not abusable to avoid the temptation of misuse and abuse.

There have been recent concerns expressed by the FDA and the press with regard to the use of stimulant medications and the risk of sudden unexpected death.  This concern was a consequence of a study done in 1999-2003 in which they looked at a large number of individuals taking stimulants and felt that there may be a slight risk.  As reported in an excellent article in the New York Times Feb 14, 2006 the apparent calculated risk of sudden unexpected death in those using amphetamines was 0.35/million (1 in 3 million) prescriptions and the risk for those on stimulants was 0.18/million (1 in 5 million) prescriptions.  There is no real evidence that this is any different from that which occurs in the normal population.  These extraordinary events of unexpected death tended to occur in individuals with congenital cardiac defects.  For this reason, the FDA issued a BLACK BOX warning to all physicians that stimulants should be used very cautiously or not at all in individuals with congenital cardiac defects.

 

COMMON SIDE EFFECTS:

The following side effects are often noted with the use of stimulants.  In general, side effects with the short-acting medications are more pronounced and bothersome than with the long-acting medications.  Thus, long acting meds are somewhat more tolerable for long-term treatment and are certainly a marked improvement for long-term therapeutic effect.

Appetite suppression:  Most will note decreased appetite during the effective hours of the medication.  This often means minimal lunch intake.  I suggest a small protein lunch such as milk, peanut butter crackers, beef or turkey jerky to get through the day.  A milkshake after school helps.  Many find their appetite returns late in the evening (around 8-9pm) when their medication wears off, and they need to be allowed to eat at that time.  If weight gain is a continued concern, I often add cyproheptadine (Periactin) 4mg, ½ tablet at breakfast and dinner.  Periactin is an antihistamine similar to Benedryl, which enhances appetite and often results in 1-2lbs-weight gain per month.  Remember that good nutrition is helpful for all, and these individuals should emphasize protein intake in their diet.

Sleep disturbance:  Many ADHD individuals will have sleep difficulties before they begin their medical treatment.  At night, their brain continues its activity and starts thinking of the day.  Using stimulant medications may either improve or worsen this problem.  In those with no prior sleep difficulty, stimulants can create significant sleep issues.  ADHD individuals do not usually have a problem with sleeping through the night (sleep disorder) but often do have problems with starting the sleep.  A clear-cut bedtime routine helps (bath or shower and then read in bed) with the elimination of caffeine, computers, computer games and television at least one hour before bedtime.  Interestingly, adding stimulant medication actually allows a percentage to sleep better at night, and this technique should be tried.  It only takes one night to see if a dose of short acting stimulant will enable sleep initiation.

Some patients, however, require more assistance.  Many patients will use a small dose of Clonidine tablets given one hour before bedtime to help with sleep initiation.  Clonidine is a mild sedative, not a sleeping pill, and it is non-addictive.  Approximately 60-90 minutes after taking the medication, a brief sleepy phase will occur that lasts about 20 minutes.  If the patient is in bed and trying to go to sleep, it is very effective.  It will NOT make someone stop playing computer games and go to bed.

Mood changes:  One of the biggest complaints about stimulants is that they can cause mood changes.  These come in a number of different forms.

Rollercoaster effect:  Short acting medications have a continuous cycling of the blood level, either rising or falling throughout the day.  This can lead to significant mood changes, particularly at the end of the four-hour cycle when the medication is wearing off.  This problem with cycling is greatly diminished with the use of eight-hour and twelve-hour medications.

Rebound effect.  Stimulants can often wear off very rapidly, and in some individuals, this can cause a rebound, a marked change in demeanor often characterized by irritability, loss of patience, and a worsening of the ADHD core symptoms.  Rebound can occur in the evening when the medication wears off and can also be evident in the morning on first arising.  The morning rebound may require an early dose of immediate release methylphenidate (MPH) prior to the administration of the long-acting dose at breakfast.  The Rebound effect is markedly reduced in frequency and severity in the long-acting stimulants.

Irritability and anxiety:  All of the stimulants have the possibility of causing a generalized irritability, and sometimes even anger, which is not tolerable over a long period of time.  They can cause anxiety and panic disorder and may aggravate existing anxiety.  Often, changing from one stimulant to another will reduce this side effect, so it is worth trying different stimulants to identify the best one for each patient.

Overdose effect:  When using the stimulants it is necessary to gradually raise the dose to find the most effective therapeutic level.  Sometimes in doing this, one gets an overdose effect.  The stimulants are incredibly safe. They have been studied for over 50 years, and there is no evidence at this time of any long-term serious complications when used appropriately for ADHD.  However, if ADHD individuals take too high a dose, they will experience an overdose effect which appears as a dulling of the personality:  They complain of being somewhat physically lethargic, subdued, dull, less conversational, less apt to laugh and be social.  By simply lowering the dose for one day, these symptoms will disappear.

Tic FormationAll of the stimulants have the possibility of temporarily causing a tic disorder or aggravating an existing one.  There is no evidence that the use of stimulant medications will cause a permanent formation of tic disorder or Tourette syndrome.  Children who already have tics (10% of children have mild tics at some point in childhood) and individuals with Tourette syndrome will find a number of different scenarios with the use of medication.  Approximately 1/3 will actually notice that the tics improve (lessen) with the use of stimulants, 1/3 will see no change at all, and 1/3 will find the tics worsen with use of stimulants.  If the stimulants are effective and tics are worse, a medication to help control the tics is usually added to the treatment.

 

METHYLPHENIDATE TABLETS  2-4 hours   (Ritalin IR)

Form:                 Short acting tablets.  Methylphenidate (MPH) 5mg, 10mg, 20mg.

Dosage:            Very individual.  Average 5-20mg tablets every 2-4 hours.

Action:               Immediate release (IR) MPH starts to take effect in 15 minutes, which is extremely helpful for some individuals.  Some children need an early morning dose 20 minutes BEFORE arising in the am, followed by a long-acting medication at breakfast.  Often used as a booster for evening coverage.

Possible Side Effects     See above

Pros:                  Very easy to use for short periods of coverage, such as early morning and evening.

Cons:                Must be administered frequently during the day (3-5 times/day).  Inconvenient to use at school and work.  Often causes rebound and rollercoaster effect.  Very abusable.

 

DEXTRO-METHYLPHENIDATE  4-6 hours   (Focalin)

                                                            8-12 hours (Focalin XR)

 

Focalin is an isomer product of methylphenidate.  Methylphenidate is composed of two mirror-image molecules, and it has been determined that the right-hand side of the molecule contains most of the therapeutic activity.  Therefore the left-hand side has been eliminated, giving a cleaner formulation of methylphenidate.

Form:                 Tablets:  2.5mg, 5mg, and 10mg. (Focalin)

Capsules:  5mg, 10mg, 20mg

Dosage:            The same as methylphenidate, but divide the dose by half.

Action:               The same as methylphenidate, but in some individuals up to 6 hours duration.

Possible Side Effects:    Same as MPH but possibly to a slightly less degree.

Pros:                  A cleaned up version of MPH that may last a bit longer with slightly decreased side effects.

Cons:                Same as MPH.  Very abusable.

 

METHYLPHENIDATE SUSTAINED RELEASE  6 hours   (Ritalin SR20)

Replaced by Ritalin LA.

 

METHYLPHENIDATE LONG ACTING  8 hours   (Ritalin LA)

Form:                 Capsules: 20mg, 30mg and 40mg.

Dosage:            Very individual.  Average: 20-40 mg daily or twice a day, every 8 hours.

Action:               Same as methylphenidate, but eliminates the noontime dose.

Possible Side Effects:    See above.

Pros:                  Eliminates midday dosing.  Works more smoothly than IR methylphenidate and is more effective than methylphenidate SR.

Cons:                Only works for eight hours and therefore subjects the patient to loss of focus and control in mid-afternoon.  This requires an afternoon booster to be administered.

 

METHYLPHENIDATE CONTROLLED DISPENSE  8 hours   (Metadate CD)

Form:                 Capsules: 20mg (10mg and 30mg to be available in 2003)

Dosage:            Very individual.  Average: 2-3 capsules in the am.

Action:               Same as methylphenidate.

Possible Side Effects:    See above.

Pros:                  Works more smoothly than IR methylphenidate.  Sometimes is effective when Concerta and Ritalin LA are not effective.  Not abusable.

Cons:                Works for only eight hours.  (See Ritalin LA)

 

***METHYLPHENIDATE EXTENDED RELEASE  12 hours   (Concerta)

No generic available

Form:                 12-hour long-acting tablet uses a unique delivery system that delivers a constant therapeutic level of methylphenidate for twelve full hours.  Cannot be broken or cut or delivery system is destroyed. Concerta 18mg, 27mg, 36mg, 54mg.

Dosage:            Dosage will vary as with all methylphenidate products.

Concerta 18mg = Ritalin  5mg three times a day

Concerta 27mg = Ritalin 7.5mg three times a day

Concerta 36mg = Ritalin 10mg three times a day

Concerta 54mg = Ritalin 15mg three times a day

Action:               12 hours of consistent therapy with no highs or lows throughout the day.  A few individuals will only get 8-9 hours of effective therapy and will need either a higher dose or a second dose.

Possible Side Effects:    See above.

Pros:                  Unique delivery system (an internal osmotic pump) avoids multiple dosing throughout the day.  No dosage at school.  No rebounding with missed doses.  Fewer side effects, less mood swings, and a better therapeutic response for many individuals.  No daytime dosing.  Less anxiety and worry.  Not abusable.

Cons:                Does not work for all individuals who use methylphenidate.  If ineffective, should try Ritalin LA and/or Metadate CD.  May need a short-acting booster to cover the evening hours.

 

METHYLPHENIDATE TRANSDERMAL SYSTEM  12-15 HOUR (Daytrana)

No generic available

 

The trans-dermal patch arrived on the market July of 2006 as a new and novel delivery system for methylphenidate. The patch has the medication within the adhesive layer and is thus very thin.  It works by diffusion, allowing the medication to gradually diffuse through the skin into the blood stream directly, thus avoiding the intestinal tract.  It is designed to be worn for nine hours and then removed, but will last longer if needed for evening activities.  After removal it will gradually lose effect over the next three hours, thus giving extended and controlled hours of therapy as the day dictates. The unique attribute of the patch is that the patient has complete control of when to start the patch and when to discontinue the patch.  For the first time, the patient can regulate the treatment for part or all of the day.  The medication in the patch is methylphenidate, and thus all of the above information regarding this medication applies.

 

DEXTROAMPHETAMINE TABLETS  4 hours   (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)

Form:                 Short acting tablets  5mg, 10mg.

Dosage:            Very individual.  Average 1-3 tablets each dose every 4-5 hours.

Action:               Rapid onset of action, approx. 20 min.  Lasts 4-5 hours.

Possible Side Effects:    See above.

Pros:                  Excellent safety record.  Rapid acting.  Some patients who do well on dextroamphetamine prefer the tablets to the spansules.  The rapid onset in tablet form is apparently more effective for these individuals.

Cons:                Same as MPH.  Very abusable.

 

DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SPANSULES  6 hours   (Dexedrine)

Generic available

Form:                 Long acting.  Dexedrine Spansules 5mg, 10mg, 15mg.

Dosage:            Very individual.  Average is 5-20 mg.

Action:               Very individual.  May take up to one hour to be effective.  Usually lasts 6-8 hours.  In some individuals, it may last all day.  In others, it may only last 4 hours.  Most will take twice a day, six-hour intervals

Possible Side Effects:    See above

Pros:                  Excellent safety record.  May be the best drug for some individuals.  Long-acting, smooth course of action.  May avoid lunchtime dose at school.

Cons:                Slow onset of action.  May require a short acting medication at the start of the day.  Very abusable.

 

AMPHETAMINE SALTS TABLETS  6 hours   (Adderall)

   

 

Form:                 Long acting tablets: 5mg, 7.5mg, 10mg, 12.5mg, 15mg, 20mg, 30mg.

Dosage:            Very individual, usually between 5mg and 20mg, once or twice each day.

Action:               Usually lasts 6 hours.  May be given once or twice a day depending on the length of therapeutic effect.  Duration of effect varies from person to person.

Possible Side Effects     See above.

Pros:                  Only needs to be given once or twice a day.  Often fewer side effects than the short acting medications.

Cons:                Can cause irritability in a small percentage of patients.  Very abusable.

 

***AMPHETAMINE SALTS EXTENDED RELEASE  12 hours   (Adderall XR)

Generic available April 1, 2009

Form:                 Uses a unique delivery system that delivers a constant therapeutic level of amphetamine salts for twelve full hours.  Capsules:  5mg, 10mg, 15mg, 20mg, 25mg, 30mg.

Dosage:            Very individual.  Average 15-30mg daily.

Action:               Long-acting 12-hour control of ADHD symptoms for coverage during most of the day.

Possible Side Effects:    See above.

Pros:                  Very effective.  Same as Adderall with longer duration of action.  Cannot be abused.

Cons:                May need a booster to cover the evening hours.

 

LISDEXAMFETAMINE  12-14 hours (Vyvanse)

No generic available

 

Form:                 A Pro-drug which renders this delivery system minimally abusable.  A new and novel delivery system which will deliver dextro-amphetamine smoothly over a 12-14  hour period.

Dosage:        Capsules:  30mg, 50mg, 70mg

Action:               The same as Dextroamphetamine

Side Effects:    Same as Dextroamphetamine

Pros:                  The only long-acting Dextroamphetamine on the market, and very unlikely to be abused.

Cons:                Same as stimulants

 

For the introduction to this article, please see: PART ONE: Therapeutic Treatment of ADHD 

 

For an excellent reference book regarding all of the medications that might be used for ADHD  individuals, including not only medications for ADHD but also medications for all of the associated co-morbid conditions, please refer to the following book:

 

STRAIGHT TALK ABOUT PSYCHIATRIC MEDICATIONS FOR KIDS , Revised Edition 2004

by Timothy Wilens M.D.

 

 

 

About the author:

0-ted-mandekornReprinted with permission from Theodore Mandelkorn, MD, a physician with Puget Sound Behavioral Medicine, a clinic that treats teens, children and adults with attention deficit disorder and related conditions.  For further information visit the website at http://psbmed.com,  or call 206/275-0702.

 

ADHD Medications: A Physician’s Perspective

 By Theodore Mandelkorn, MD – 2011

ADHD is a medical condition. Medication is a PRIMARY OPTION for therapeutic intervention.ADHD Medications: PART ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
  • WHO SHOULD TAKE MEDICATIONS, AND WHY?
  • WHAT IMPROVEMENT SHOULD BE SEEN?
  • WHO SHOULD PRESCRIBE MEDICATIONS?
  • MEDICAL TRIALS
  • WHAT IS THE CORRECT MEDICATION?
  • WHAT IS THE CORRECT DOSAGE?
  • WHAT ABOUT “NATURAL” THERAPIES?
  • SUMMARY

 

PART TWO: OVERVIEW OF ADHD MEDICATIONS 

 

INTRODUCTION

Human beings are rarely created in perfect form, so we all arrive in this world with unique differences.  Some differences are blessings, others are handicaps.  Poor vision, for example, is a common handicapping condition that affects millions of people throughout the world.  I consider poor vision a condition of “human-ness.”  People can also have other medical conditions such as diabetes, asthma, thyroid conditions, ADHD, etc.—all are well-recognized differences that can impair the pursuit of a normal lifestyle if not dealt with in some manner.

 

ADHD is characterized by a prolonged history of inattention, impulsiveness and sometimes variable amounts of hyperactivity.  It is important to emphasize that all of these symptoms are normal human characteristics.  Most of us are forgetful and inattentive at times.  We all at times become nervous and fidgety, and we certainly are impulsive to some degree.  It is part of our “human-ness.”  ADHD, therefore, is not diagnosed by the mere presence of these normal and characteristic human behaviors, but by the DEGREE to which we manifest these symptoms.  ADHD individuals have an over-abundance of these normal characteristics.  They have less CONTROL of these behaviors and therefore a more variable and frequently poor outcome of their day.

WHO SHOULD TAKE MEDICATIONS, AND WHY?

If a person meets the clinical criteria for a diagnosis of ADHD and is not succeeding academically and/or socially up to age-appropriate expectations, medication should be a PRIMARY OPTION for therapeutic intervention.  ADHD is a medical condition.  Recent research out of Harvard University has documented an abnormality in the dopamine transporter system in the central nervous system of ADHD adults.  (1)  This transporter system is responsible for moving neurotransmitter chemicals from the synaptic space back into the nerve cell.  ADHD adults have approximately 70% more dopamine transporter than non-ADHD individuals and thus appear to have an overactive transport system.

 

Returning to the vision analogy, there are a number of options open to an individual who has compromised eyesight.  One option is to attempt to correct the problem by wearing glasses to improve the visual acuity.  Perhaps glasses will totally correct the problem or perhaps they will help only partially.  After glasses are in place, we are in a position to assess what further problems are interfering with success.  Then we can address these issues as well.

 

The opportunity to eliminate the symptoms of a medical condition partially or completely should be available to all.  Many children and adults with ADHD benefit enormously from the use of medication. The medications that are in use today act as transporter blockers, thus serving to normalize this aspect of the brain chemistry.  Most families who understand ADHD and its clinical manifestations prefer to try medication as a PART of their treatment plan.  Over 90% of individuals with ADHD will have a positive response to one of the medical treatments.

WHAT IMPROVEMENT SHOULD BE SEEN?

In the early 1930’s, Dr. Charles Bradley noted some dramatic effects of stimulant medications on patients with behavior and learning disorders.  He found that the use of stimulants “normalized” many of the systems that we use for successful living.  People on medication IMPROVED their attention span, concentration, memory, motor coordination, mood, and on-task behavior.  At the same time, they DECREASED daydreaming, hyperactivity, immature behavior, defiance, and oppositional behavior.  It was evident that medical treatment allowed intellectual capabilities that were already present to function more successfully. (2, 3)

 

When medication is used appropriately, patients notice a significant improvement in control.  Objective observers should notice better control of focus, concentration, attending skills, and task completion.  Many individuals are able to cope with stress and frustration more appropriately with fewer temper outbursts, less anger and better compliance.  They relate and interact better with family members and friends.  You should see less restlessness as well as decreased motor activity and impulsiveness. ADHD individuals often complain of forgotten appointments, incomplete homework, miscopied assignments, and frequent arguments with siblings, parents, spouses, workmates, along with excessive activity and impulsive behaviors.  With medication, many of these problems dramatically improve.

 

It is very important to remember what medicine does and does not do.  Using medication is like putting on glasses.  It enables the system to function more appropriately.  Glasses do not MAKE you behave, write a term paper or even get up in the morning.  They allow your eyes to function more normally IF YOU CHOOSE to open them.  You, the individual, are still in charge of your vision.  Whether you open your eyes or not, and what you choose to look at, are controlled by you.  Medication allows your nervous system to send its chemical messages more efficiently, and thus allows your skills and knowledge to function more normally.  Medication does not provide skills or motivation to perform.  Patients successfully treated with medications typically can go to bed at night and find that most of the day went the way they had planned.

Editor’s note:  “You can’t notice small improvements or side effects without a monitoring sheet.”  See ADDitude Magazine’s 10 Medication Fallacies even Doctors Believe  See below for a few Response to Treatment Rating Scales.

WHO SHOULD PRESCRIBE MEDICATIONS?

Licensed physicians, physician’s assistants or nurse practitioners can prescribe medications. This person may serve as a coordinator to assist with the multiple therapies often needed, such as educational advocacy, counseling, parent training and social skill assistance.  Parents should look for a physician who has a special interest and knowledge in dealing with ADHD individuals.  This professional should be skilled in working closely with families to try the many and varied medical treatments that are available until the correct therapeutic response is attained.  Members of CH.A.D.D chapters are an excellent resource for referrals to appropriate professionals. (Editors note: See: Find Treatment and Support for this and other referral options.)

MEDICAL TRIALS

It is necessary to establish a team of observers to appropriately evaluate a medication trial.  Gather information from sources that spend time with the patients.  This might include significant others, parents, teachers, grandparents, tutors, piano teachers, coaches, etc.  As gradually increasing dosages are administered, feedback is gathered from these observers.  Various ADHD rating scales are available to assist in gathering factual data.  The most important assessment, however, is dependent on whether the ADHD patient’s quality of success in life has improved.  For this information, I find no scale takes the place of conversations with patient and family members.

 

When evaluating patients during a trial of medication, it is important to maintain treatment throughout the waking day, seven days a week.  Treating them only at school or in the workplace is totally inadequate.  I need all involved observers, especially parents and/or significant others, assisting in the evaluation process.  Furthermore, I want to know if treatment has an effect on non-academic issues.  Recent studies have found that treatment is necessary for most ADHD individuals throughout the full day, thus allowing full development not only of academic or work skills, but also the all-important social skills that are utilized with friends and family.  After the trial of medication, if positive results are evident, then the family and the patient can make informed decisions as to when the medication is helpful.  Most patients need the medication throughout the day and evening.

WHAT IS THE CORRECT MEDICATION?

At the present stage of medical knowledge, there is no method of predicting which medication will be most helpful for any individual.  At best, physicians can make educated decisions based on information about success rates with individual medications.  Over 80% of ADHD individuals will respond favorably to the stimulant medications, methylphenidate and amphetamines.  Both of these categories of medications may need trials to assess which is best.  If one stimulant does not work, the others should be tried, for experience has proven that individuals may respond quite differently to each one.  Other alternative medications are available including the non-stimulant medications for ADHD.  Experience has shown that the non-stimulants are not as effective as the stimulants, but they more be better tolerated by some.  Each family and physician must be willing to try different medications in order to determine the best and most effective therapy.  This is the only way to find the appropriate medical treatment.  In some children who have multiple diagnoses such as ADHD and depression, or ADHD and anxiety, or ADHD and Tourette syndrome, combinations of medications are being successfully utilized for treatment.

WHAT IS THE CORRECT DOSAGE?

If stimulant medications work, there is an optimal dose for each individual.  Unfortunately, medical knowledge is not at a point where it can predict what the correct medication or dose will be.  This is not an unusual circumstance in medicine, however.  For a person with diabetes, for example, we must try different forms and amounts of insulin to achieve the best control of blood sugar levels. For people with high blood pressure, there are many medications that can be effective, and often a trial of multiple medications and dosages is necessary to determine the best treatment.  For stimulant medications, there is no magic formula.  The dose cannot be determined by age, body weight or severity of symptoms.  In fact, it appears that the correct dose is extremely individual and is not at all predictable.  Again, similar to people who need glasses, the kind of prescription and the thickness of the lenses are not dependent on any measurable parameter other than what the individuals say enables them to see well.  The dose of medication is determined solely by what ADHD patients need to most effectively reduce their symptoms.  One must be willing to experiment with carefully observed dosage changes to determine the correct dosage.  The appropriate dosage does not seem to change very much with age or growth.  Medication continues to work effectively through the teenage years and through adulthood.

With the non-stimulants, the dosage at the present time is calculated according to weight.  These are the only medications for ADHD for which this is true.

WHAT ABOUT “NATURAL” THERAPIES?

At this time, there is no evidence that natural therapies are therapeutic.  There are many anecdotes about various “magical” cures for ADHD, but none have been found to be valid.  Remember:  multiple anecdotes do not mean proof.     Natural therapies such as grape seed extract, blue algae, biofeedback, magnets, megavitamins, diet, and other “natural products” have not yet shown any lasting therapeutic benefit.  At this time traditional medical therapy is the most effective treatment for ADHD.  This is quite similar to other medical treatments such as insulin, THE best form of treatment for Type 1 diabetes, or thyroid pills THE best therapy for an inactive thyroid gland.  Furthermore, natural health food treatments are not regulated by the government and are therefore highly suspect for contamination.  Please be cautious when experimenting with alternative therapies on your family members.

SUMMARY

Individuals with ADHD present with a variety of well-defined symptoms and behaviors.  Medication may be extremely helpful in alleviating some of these symptoms and will allow the other therapeutic modalities to be much more successful.  Families must be willing to work closely with their physician to identify the correct medications and establish the best dosage levels.

 

 

References:

  1. Dougherty, D.D. Dopamine transporter density in patients with ADHD. Lancet 1999; 354: 2132.
  2. Bradley, C. The behavior of children receiving Benzedrine. Am J Psychiatry 1939; 99: 577-585.
  3. Bradley, C. Benzedrine and Dexedrine in the treatment of children’s behavior disorders. Pediatrics 1950; 5: 24-37.

 

NEXT POST: PART II, AN OVERVIEW OF THE SPECIFIC MEDICATIONS USED TO TREAT ADHD

 

 

Resources:

For an excellent reference book regarding all of the medications that might be used for ADHD  individuals, including not only medications for ADHD but also medications for all of the associated co-morbid conditions, please refer to the following book:

 

STRAIGHT TALK ABOUT PSYCHIATRIC MEDICATIONS FOR KIDS , Revised Edition 2004

by Timothy Wilens M.D.

 

Suggested Reading:

 

  1. DRIVEN TO DISTRACTION  by Ned Hallowell, MD
  2. DAREDEVILS AND DAYDREAMERS by Barbara Ingersoll
  3. UNDERSTANDING GIRLS WITH ADHD by Kathleen Nadeau and Patricia Quinn
  4. UNDERSTANDING WOMAN WITH ADHD by Kathleen Nadeau and Patricia Quinn
  5. TEENAGERS WITH ADHD by Chris Dendy
  6. IS IT YOU, ME OR ADHD by Gina Pera (For couples where one has ADHD and the other does not)

 

0-ted-mandekornAbout the author:

Reprinted with permission of Theodore Mandelkorn, MD, a physician with Puget Sound Behavioral Medicine, a clinic that treats teens, children, and adults with attention deficit disorder and related conditions.  For further information visit the website at http://psbmed.com,  or call 206/275-0702.

 

 

Why I Choose to Medicate my ADHD Child

 " I know that he feels better about himself and his life when he feels more productive and connected, and when things are less of a struggle."By Parent coach Diane Dempster

The pros and cons of medicating ADHD kids is a hot topic that weighs heavy on the minds of our clients and other parents. It’s been on my mind, lately, too. Here’s my perspective and my story.

My story:

I generally take a holistic approach when it comes to my family’s health.  We prefer to eat organic whenever possible, and I tend to choose more holistic remedies for managing illness.

In third grade, when my son was first diagnosed with ADHD, I was adamant that I would not medicate him. Even though I had been working in healthcare for many years, the idea of putting an 8 year old on a maintenance medication seemed extreme. I was convinced I would find an alternative, something other than what I assumed was a “brain-numbing” medication that I was convinced would turn my fun-loving daydreamer of a kid into a zombie.

Our Pediatrician was a saint. She was eternally patient with me, wanting to support my wishes. When I asked, she held firm on her perspective that medications have been proven to help most kids. Unless ruled out for some other clinical reason, she considered medication to be “best practice” for ADHD treatment.

At some point in the process, after hours of research and hair pulling, something she said to me stuck hard. “It’s clear that you want to do all you can for your son to help him be more successful. What if medication could work for him, but you weren’t willing to try it? Yes, there are potentially side effects, but typically they are not significant. He can always stop taking it if it doesn’t work, or the side effects are a problem.”

As a coach, we encourage our parents to use their values as a barometer for decision-making. Looking back, the values that were most important in helping me make my decision were: dedication to family, being responsible, striving for excellence, and being well educated.

I knew that I could always have my son stop taking the medication; but, if he never tried it, I wouldn’t really know if it would help him or not. Bottom line: I was committed to doing whatever I could to help my son. For me, that meant letting him try the medication and see what happened.

We were fortunate. The process of finding a medication “fit” was easy for us. The first medication we tried worked quite well, and its effects appeared instantly. He was like a new kid, literally, in a matter of hours. His side effects were mild and manageable. After that first week, I never looked back. It was clear to me that I had done the right thing for my son.

My son is now a teenager. Sometimes we end up in conversations about whether or not he has to take his pills, particularly when he’s not in school. He knows that they help, but sometimes he thinks that he would be better off not taking them. Ultimately he doesn’t like to feel “different.” That’s a big deal for most teens. I have compassion for how he feels. I also hold fast to the house rule that he take his medication (most of the time).

Here’s why I choose to medicate my ADHD son:

  • For my son: He has a neurobiological disorder of the brain, and medication definitely helps his brain to focus and to work more efficiently. If he had diabetes, I would never question whether or not to put him on insulin if he was an appropriate candidate.
  • For me: To be honest, it makes my life easier when he takes his medication. Being a parent of a special needs kid is more than challenging. It’s often overwhelming and highly stressful. Having a child that is a little more focused and a little less emotional takes some pressure off. It helps to support me in staying out of crisis mode, and in being more of the parent I know I want to be. It also helps me feel like I’m doing all I can to help him be successful. Yes, we can debate what it means to be successful, but that is a whole other blog.
  • For the other people in his life: Like it or not, society rewards people for “fitting in.” If you know me, you’ll know that I’m a huge fan of beating your own drum. I am also a realist. My parents always told me, “you attract more flies with honey.” I want my son to be attractive.

Ultimately everything comes back to my son. I know that he feels better about himself and his life when he feels more productive and connected, and when things are less of a struggle. He may not always remember this – after all, he is a kid with ADHD — so I get to be his mirror. When he is an adult, he’ll be able to make his own decisions. For now, while he is still under my direct care, I get the added bonus of knowing that I’ve made a powerful choice to support my ADHD kid!

 

Article originally appeared on ImpactADHD.com and is reproduced with permission of ImpactADHD™ Why I Choose to Medicate my Child by Diane Dempster

“Photo courtesy of ddpavumba/FreeDigitalPhoto.net” Modified on Canva

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